Light and shadow
In visual art, the term light and shadow (also called light and shade) refers to how the artist renders the objects in the picture so that the lighting (and the three-dimensional shape of the objects) becomes visible.
Black on white
In artistic techniques that only use a single color (often black on white paper, for simplicity and maximum contrast), such as woodcuts or inked drawings, surface areas that are "in the light" are left white or "high key" while areas that are "in the shade" are colored black or "low key". Often, shaded areas are also hatched or cross-hatched to create a pseudo-grey appearance. The hatching technique can also be skillfully used to depict the roundness of the object - a technique that has been driven to perfection in the art of etching.
In monochrome (usually greyscale) art, such as pencil or charcoal drawings, shades of grey can be used instead of hatching. Often, white chalk is combined with black charcoal for a maximum contrast range between the lights and the darks. Smooth transitions can be created by wiping the pigment.
In rendered art, photography, and film, the artist composes light and shadow by arranging light sources in relation to the scene and to the camera.
Pierre-Paul Prud'hon (1758-1823) - Nudo accademico maschile.
Drawing of a boy, Adolph von Menzel (1815-1905).
Black and white photo of a mannequin.
Light and shadow in spanking art
The image to the right shows an example of how light and shadow is employed effectively in spanking art.