Spanking videos (or spanking movies) are non-mainstream erotic (in some cases, pornographic) videos centered around adult (M/F, F/F, F/M or M/M) spanking scenes. Spanking videos are available for purchase on VHS videotapes, DVDs or via digital download from Internet websites.
About half of the videos produced since the first stag reels of the 1930s feature an all-female (F/F) cast, appealing to men and lesbian/bisexual women alike. Male-punishes-female (M/F) titles take up a much smaller percentage. Some video producers occasionally mix F/F and M/F scenes together. Femdom (F/M) videos are a small but growing niche market along with the more specialized all-male (M/M) titles. Until fairly recently, spanking videos did not include pornographic content. However, many of the larger companies (Shadow Lane, Lupus Pictures, et al.) now offer a few (mostly M/F) titles that combine spanking with hardcore sex scenes.
 The early years
The first spanking fetish movies emerged on the fringe of the underground pornographic film industry in the silent movie era. As early as the 1920s, short films or "blue movies" with erotic corporal punishments began to appear, primarily in France. These were shown in brothels, at private all-male parties (hence the terms "stag film" and "smokers"), as well as "members only" cinema clubs. In Europe the 9.5mm camera designed for amateur filmmakers was introduced in 1922. This remained popular until 1932 when Kodak's 8mm film format became the industry standard for non-professional films.
To view a rare early example online, a clip from The Casting Couch, a 1924 stag film, is embedded in a documentary on YouTube (at 9:20). This shows a masochist man bound and beaten with a riding crop by a woman.
These silent, crudely made film-loops (3 to 10 minutes in length) depicted simple fetishistic fantasies such as schoolgirls getting spanked by their teacher or a mistress punishing a clumsy maid. Nearly all of the these filmmakers remain anonymous. One notable exception is Jacques Biederer's Biederer Studio and Ostra Studio in Paris. He was the best-known producer of sophisticated fetish photographs and films in Europe. A handful of rare films by Ostra and others can still be found in a number of vintage erotica compilation videos.
Several rediscovered Ostra films from the 1930s can also be viewed at the Internet Archive website:
- Dressage au Fouet (a mistress dominates and whips her slave)
- Sous Les Caresses du Martinet (depicts a playful, sadomasochistic lesbian relationship)
- The Broken Vase (a lady punishes her inept maid)
- Jeunes filles sans uniforme (schoolgirls spanked outdoors, possibly by Ostra Studio)
Another example, La fessée à l'école, is featured in Polissons et galipettes, pornographic footage from the 1920s released in 2002 (see Links below).
In the 1930s and '40s, a few films used bondage and corporal punishment as a prelude to explicit sex scenes. (See Espirit de Famille and another French stag film at the Internet Archive.) But the majority of these early, black-and-white films featured little more than mild, often whimsical, scenes of bondage and spanking. Over the next few decades, harsher scenes of whipping, caning and various kinky BDSM elements including role playing, gradually increased.
The mainstream film Quartet (1981), set in Paris in 1927, offers a glimpse of a photo studio much like Jacques Biederer's. A nude model wearing only a maid's apron poses with a martinet, about to whip her mistress. This can be seen on YouTube starting here and concluding in the next part.
 The 1950s: Bettie Page and Irving Klaw
Klaw made around 200 of these silent films (averaging 5 minutes in length) featuring bondage, female wrestling, and other S&M subjects, including spanking. (The subject matter was based on specific requests from his kink-obsessed clients.) Page appeared in close to 50 of these films shot between 1953 and 1954. Most of them were lost or destroyed, but around 60 have been preserved and released on various DVD compilations.
Klaw's films usually display a playful, lighthearted tone. There is nothing severe or sadistic to be found in any of his work. For fear of prosecution, Klaw carefully avoided anything that could be considered pornographic. All of his films feature an all-female cast and had no nudity or sexual content. Klaw's women are always clad in their underwear with stockings and fetishistic high heels (sometimes in corsets or leather bondage outfits). The typical corporal punishment scenario would involve a servant or slave girl who is bound and spanked for misbehaving.
His films and photo stills taken during the movie sessions were discreetly sold at his Movie Star News shop in Manhattan as well as through a mail order catalog and ads placed in various clandestine fetish and girlie magazines. Klaw's main business was selling pin-up photos of models and movie stars.
Klaw is unique in that he was a legitimate businessman with a storefront operation who produced kinky stag films as a sideline. He was cautious in regard to the existing obscenity laws, but did not conceal his identity. His name appears in the title credits of all his film-loops. By contrast, all of his contemporaries, many of whom show a Klaw influence, remain anonymous to this day. Fetish films with identifying production credits did not appear until the late 1970s with companies such as HOM Inc. and Nu-West.
 Sexploitation films of the 1960s
In the 1960s, Klaw's underground film-loops would have a direct effect on the emerging sexploitation film genre. Three of the earliest "roughies", Olga's Girls, Olga's House of Shame (both 1964) and Tortured Females (1965), show Klaw's influence and include the first mainstream scenes of erotic bondage, spanking and whipping of abducted half-naked women.
Increasingly graphic and sadistic corporal punishments continued in dozens of similar adults-only films such as RENT-A-GIRL (1965), The Defilers (1965), and Love is a Four Letter Word (1966). In the '60s amateur fetish loops and low-budget exploitation films both became more extreme and may have had a back-and-forth influence on each other.
Mondo Keyhole (1966), offers a rare inside look at the fetish film industry of the '60s, including the filming of a BDSM stag film. More film-within-a-film scenes can be found in Starlet! (1968), Over 18...and Ready (1969), and Superchick (1973).
 Harrison Marks
England's contribution to the roughie exploitation genre was the controversial and frequently banned Pattern of Evil (1968) directed by Harrison Marks. This had a dark S&M theme and explicit sex scenes.
Since 1960 Marks had been producing scores of 8mm "nudie" films. Nearly all of these involve busty women undressing in simple fantasy vignettes. However, in 1967 he began to dabble in bondage and discipline scenarios. Captive girls are chained and whipped in a medieval dungeon; a leather-clad dominatrix flogs a male slave, etc.
Starting in 1979, Marks worked as a photographer for the well-known spanking magazine Janus. In 1982 he left Janus to create a similar magazine, Kane. He then went on to direct a string of spanking videos in the '80s and '90s.
 The rise of fetish stag films
The introduction of the improved Super 8mm format in 1965 led to a sudden increase in the production of a variety of underground "stag party" films.
There were three main types: nudist and striptease "art" or "glamour" films, hardcore pornographic sex movies, and kinky fetish loops. This last group covered a variety of offbeat subjects. The majority were simple films showing either female wrestling or topless girls struggling in bondage. Other reels were equal parts bondage and spanking, with a bit of wrestling thrown in.
With the exception of a few French reels, fetish loops of this period had no sexual content and mostly featured an all-female cast. In fact, the producers carefully avoided showing full-frontal nudity. This was clearly a precaution to separate themselves from explicit pornographic films which were frequently prosecuted by legal authorities.
The early films from the '20s to the '50s were mostly made in the controlled environment of a studio using a tripod-mounted camera. The sets comprised a few simple props and furniture items placed in front of a large curtain or blacked-out backdrop. By contrast, the new wave of 1960s B&D film-loops were casually shot with hand-held cameras in actual livingrooms and bedrooms with little attention paid to lighting or composition. Looking more like amateur home movies, some are hopelessly dark and murky while others are terribly overexposed. Performers are often seen pausing during a scene and looking toward the camera for stage directions.
Advertisements for stag movies (plus ads for inexpensive movie viewers and projectors) became a regular fixture in the back pages of dozens of men's girlie periodicals as well as a new breed of specialized spanking magazines (Corporal, Bizarre Life, et al.). The spanking and bondage reels were often advertised as "damsels in distress" films for sophisticated "connoisseurs of the bizarre and unusual". Most of these shadowy shell companies listed a discreet P.O. box address in Los Angeles, New York or Amsterdam.
 Style and scenarios
Many of these films have the light-hearted feeling of a slumber party gone wrong. Typically, a group of pretty, semi-clad girls will start out playfully wrestling in their living room and end up spanking each other. But there are also a number of darker films that show strict domination and more severe spanking and whipping punishments.
The most frequently used scenarios involve a lesbian couple in some petty dispute and a stern dominatrix (most fetish films, then and now, are F/F) who disciplines one or more unruly slave girls. The action usually begins with a "cat fight" struggle for dominance followed by a lengthy bondage sequence. After being securely bound with rope, the submissive receives a long and vigorous spanking with one or more implements (hairbrush, paddle, flogger, etc.).
Some stories include an ironic "turnabout" ending with the slave(s) getting free, overpowering the mistress, and giving her a taste of the whip and paddle. During this decade we also see the earliest attempts at creating a more sinister dungeon-based scenario — usually a basement hastily rigged with homemade bondage equipment and improvised torture devices. Here, abducted girls are held captive by sadistic mistresses (and sometimes male masters) and subjected to various torments and punishments.
All of these story elements would eventually become standard ingredients used countless times in the full-length spanking and BDSM videos to come two decades later.
 Interracial casting
Another interesting development in the '60s is the sudden appearance of a fully integrated cast at a time when mainstream films continued to neglect non-white actors. Hollywood films paid scant attention to the social changes wrought by the Civil Rights movement. And yet, underground erotic films portrayed black and Latin women as all-powerful mistresses who dominate, bind, and punish their white slave girls. Incredibly, these obscure, modestly produced 8mm movies were the first films to obliterate racial stereotypes by reversing the traditional power roles.
However, a number of grindhouse sexploitation films – mostly "roughies" with fetishistic scenes of corporal punishment – also featured black actresses. These include: RENT-A-GIRL (1965), Mondo Keyhole (1966), Maidens of Fetish Street (1966), and In Hot Blood (1968).
One of the few known producers of interracial spanking loops is fetish magazine publisher Leonard Burtman. In the late '60s he shot dozens of short films in his Manhattan apartment and promoted them in photo-layouts in his spanking magazines Corporal and Bizarre Films.
Links to selected 1960s film loops:
- Latex Mistress - spanking and whipping a group of slave girls
- Dungeon BDSM - note the variety of standard and improvised equipment.
- A doctor ruler-spanks two nurses - somewhat rare M/F scenario
 The 1970s
In the 1970s color film became more prominent and a few producers such as House of Milan began experimenting with longer multi-part stories. Up to this time these 8mm reels still had no audio track (a few had music but no synchronized sound) and an average length of only 7 to 10 minutes. There were also hand-held 8mm movie viewers sold in men's magazines that came with a selection of pre-recorded music tracks.
By 1972 X-rated sex films had made the transition to full-length 35mm features screened in designated "adult" theaters and drive-ins. This made pornographic loops obsolete and they gradually faded away. At this point the sex and fetish genres more or less went their separate ways.
Softcore and hardcore pornographic films (and a new genre of R-rated sex comedies inspired by the '60s nudie-cuties) were quickly assimilated into mainstream culture. Many of these films freely exploited S&M themes and displayed all sorts of kinky behavior (see the film list on the pornography page). Still, fetish film-loops remained a fringe industry that continued to secretly struggle along until the end of the decade.
 1980s to the present
The introduction of the VCR in the early 1980s led to a period of explosive growth in home video production. This completely changed the way adult films were created and sold. The era of the clandestine 8mm film loop was over. Videotape did not require the expensive and cumbersome processing used to develop and duplicate films. Now producers could make slick, professional-looking mini-movies (averaging 40-60 minutes in length) with full color and sound at a rapid pace with a very small investment.
At the same time, laws regulating mail-order and storefront businesses selling adult films had become far less stringent, especially in the U.S. Most video rental stores included an adults-only section tucked away in the back or off in a separate room. As a result, what had always been a tiny underground industry quickly expanded into a booming mainstream business.
In England, The Perils of Mandy (1980), directed by Kenneth F. Rowles, illustrates part of that transition. Five years earlier Rowles produced The Ups and Downs of a Handyman, a bawdy sex comedy that featured a kinky spanking scene. The Perils of Mandy, a campy, poorly-acted tale of a sexy schoolgirl, followed a similar pattern, but was never completed. However, the existing 40 minutes of film had some over-the-top scenes of star Gloria Brittain being caned and abused by her lecherous headmaster. The footage was edited and released on videocassette by the Vision-On Video Film Company as a spanking fetish movie – one of the very first to hit the market. (See video clip.)
 Specialty videos
This new video age also led to a more specialized approach aimed toward niche marketing. In the '60s and '70s film-loops randomly combined various fetishes including female wrestling, bondage, paddling, whipping, pony play, erotic torture and sadomasochism. By the '80s this was no longer the case. Fetish videos were quickly divided into specific "purist" categories and marketed to appeal to the hard-core enthusiast.
Thus, the new all-bondage films had no spanking just as spanking videos had no bondage. The consumer could now choose from a variety of single-subject videos entirely devoted to one activity such as "cat fighting", foot worship, tickling, pony play, Femdom, rubber, latex, and so on.
 Dungeons and dominatrices
One of the most popular (and most broad-based) categories is the ubiquitous torture-dungeon BDSM video. In the '80s and '90s, industry leaders B&D Pleasures, London Enterprises, and its sister company House of Milan created a standard format that has been widely imitated ever since. These videos took a middle-of-the-road approach that offered a little bit of everything.
The basic formula – endlessly repeated in thousands of videos – involves a cruel dominatrix who bullies and abuses her cowering slaves (or innocent captives). In a sinister dungeon they are humiliated, bound and/or shackled, gagged, spanked, paddled, whipped all over, tormented with nipple clamps, clothes pins, dripping wax, the rack, suspension devices, etc. By the late '80s, German export videos began to appear that combined extremely harsh punishments with nonconsensual hardcore sex acts.
This genre offers novelty and variety for the S&M crowd, but holds little appeal for the corporal punishment purist who prefers to see a schoolgirl caning or a cheerleader being paddled.
 Bondage, spanking and BDSM
A pattern was set that remains to this day. Fetish movies were channeled into three main categories: bondage, corporal punishment (CP), and BDSM (which combined elements of the previous two). Corporal punishment (spanking) videos comprise a variety of subcategories, probably due to customer feedback, to appeal to a wider audience. There are CP videos that concentrate on a single punishment method, implement (cane, paddle, whip), scenario (home, school, office, etc.), gender pairing (M/F, F/F, F/M), and even body position. Thus, the over the knee spanking traditionalist, caning enthusiast, flogging fetishist, and others, can find videos tailored to suit their interests.
For example, Nu-West, one of the oldest and largest producers, started in 1982 with a few silent spanking loops on Super-8. A year later they were mass producing half-hour featurettes on videotape. To meet customer demand, they went on to create separate brands for femdom (Leda) and flagellation (Flag Concepts) videos and changed their name to Nu-West/Leda Productions.
 Reality videos
Another subgenre that has grown since the '90s is the unscripted, reality-based video without professional actresses or models. These documentary style films offer authentic punishment scenes with girl-next-door amateurs. Raven Hill Studios has produced three popular series using this approach (Beach Girl Spankings, Resolved by Corporal Punishment, and Spankin' Down the Highway). Pacific Force (Real Couples, Real Spankings), Mood Pictures (Mood Castings), Spanking Casting, Amateur Spankings, Bun Beating Fun, Real Life Spankings, The Real Spanking Court (with real-life court trials), as well as many others continue to develop and expand on the reality/amateur video concept. Another variant is Chelsea Pfeiffer Entertainment's long-running Chelsea Spanks! series featuring unscripted, spontaneous all-punishment sessions with professional models.
Three other companies, Bars and Stripes in the U.K., My Spanking Roommate in the U.S., and Spanking Family in Hungary (an affiliate of Spanking Casting), were inspired by reality TV shows and soap operas and have created contained environments (prison, an apartment complex, etc.) for a large cast of regular characters (played by professional models) to live out a series of continuing stories.
 The influence of the Internet
Beginning in the '90s, the Internet offered a new platform for established movie producers, as well as countless new start-up companies, to promote and sell their videos. Eventually videotape cassettes would be replaced by more sophisticated digital recordings placed on discs (DVDs) and uploaded to websites. Companies could now show, at their websites and video archive sites such as Spanking Tube, free preview trailers of their films, actress interviews, and other behind-the-scenes features.
Advances in streaming video technology allowing one to view movies online (and download copies to their computer) has forever changed the way films are produced and marketed. Ironically, this new Internet technology has revived the old film-loop concept. Many companies were quick to realize the potential in selling individual short films (5 to 15 minutes in length) online in addition to full-length movies on DVD. Some add new short films to their websites on a weekly basis. Today, many producers such as Punished Brats and Chelsea Pfeiffer Entertainment create short films in a series for sale on their website that are later released on full-length compilation DVDs. It is also increasingly common for feature-length films to be chopped up into short segments for sale as an online commodity.
 Amateurs and independent producers
There has also been en explosion of amateur home made videos made available, for free or for sale, on thousands of personal web sites from every part of the globe. And many popular fetish actress/models manage their own sites where they sell exclusive videos (some even do customized videos based on client requests).
The Internet has made it possible for many well-known performers in the fetish industry to create their own web-based video production companies. Many of these enterprising women write, direct, and produce in addition to performing on camera. The more prominent among these actress-producers include Jennifer Brooks (Brooks Applications), Eve Howard (Shadow Lane), Jacqueline Omerta (Pacific Force), Amber Wells (Punished Brats), Chelsea Pfeiffer (Chelsea Pfeiffer Entertainment), Clare Fonda (Clare Fonda Productions), Bobbie Tawse (Bobbie's DropSeats), Amber Grey, Pandora Blake (Dreams of Spanking), Isabella Sinclaire (GwenMedia), and Madison Young.
Besides pay-per-view and other forms of online marketing, there are many vintage and contemporary spanking videos that can be viewed online for free. For a partial list of available films, see the Spanking videos on the Internet page.
 CP vs. BDSM videos
Today there are hundreds of amateur and professional producers specialising in spanking/corporal punishment videos. While many people consider corporal punishment/spanking merely subsets of BDSM, CP videos are a completely separate genre with a unique ethos.
Perhaps the most common theme in CP videos is the traditional headmaster/schoolgirl scene. Domestic scenes are also popular — husbands spanking wives, bosses spanking secretaries, parents spanking sons or daughters, etc. But the combinations and pairings are as diverse as the scenarios.
 S&M videos
BDSM films produced by companies such as London Enterprises, House of Milan, Bon-Vue Enterprises, et al., differ widely from spanking/CP productions. The stereotypical "whips and chains" S&M video involves a strict, sadistic dominatrix-type mistress (or male master) who punishes misbehaving slave girls in a dungeon stocked with elaborate bondage and torture devices. Some stories show women being abducted and forced into slavery or prostitution.
 The psychology of spanking scenarios
By contrast, spanking videos eschew the sinister and fantastic mistress/slave dungeon scenario and base their stories in more mundane real-life settings such as the home, office, school, sorority house, reform school, and prison. (However, the harshness and cruelty in prison stories is closer to BDSM films.) These familiar scenarios are more in line with the fantasies of everyday people who might not relate to the extreme and specialized aspects of the BDSM lifestyle.
Many domestic and classroom videos, either by design or coincidence, have a strong nostalgic appeal for those who witnessed or experienced corporal punishment at home or at school. Just like pornographic films, the overwhelming majority of spanking videos are created to satisfy deeply-rooted adolescent sexual fantasies. That is why the most popular archetypal sex symbols continue to be schoolgirls, cheerleaders, and sorority girls. The power to control, humiliate, and punish (in an erotic context) the flirtatious schoolgirl, the haughty cheerleader, and the unobtainable sorority girl is, in effect, a psychological form of sexual revenge.
 Sexual sadism
On the other hand, S&M videos centered around the cruel torture and abuse of desirable women, is a more violent adult-based fantasy. These films frequently include disturbing elements of sadism and misogyny.
Unlike the comparatively innocent spanking fantasy, the BDSM genre includes sex-oriented punishments such as breast and genital torment (whipping, clamps, hox wax, piercing with needles, etc.). Its victims are submissive slaves and abducted women. One rarely, if ever, encounters schoolgirls, cheerleaders, or sorority girls (one exception being Japanese schoolgirl bondage videos).
 Punishing the maid
The other popular trope used almost exclusively in spanking videos is the master-and-maid (especially French maid) scenario. This comes from the universal power fantasy of having a compliant, domestic sex slave (even though the sex is implied and not shown).
The maid, always young and beautiful, is portrayed as a powerless, and often frivolous, play-thing. She even looks like a doll in her sexy, revealing uniform. She normally gets punished for being lazy, flirtatious or foolishly inept. The maid is easily manipulated and constantly under control. She serves her master (or mistress) by performing demeaning and humiliating chores and is swiftly spanked for the slightest transgression.
The majority of spanking videos avoid bondage, cruelty, and stories about violent abduction and slavery. Here, the punished girl willingly, albeit reluctantly, submits to an authority figure such as a parent, aunt, teacher, headmaster, etc. Instead of the elaborate torture devices of BDSM films, they rely on traditional punitive implements like school canes, paddles, rulers, tawses, birch rods and over-the-knee (OTK) spanking by hand. Plus, pervertible household items such as hairbrushes, belts and wooden spoons are also commonly used.
Other belittling punitive measures may also be employed, such as forced nudity, wearing a dunce cap, standing in the corner, counting cane or paddle strokes out loud, writing lines of contrition, mouth soaping, and sitting or kneeling on a hard or rough-textured surface.
In recent years the industry has grown to accommodate increasingly more dramatic settings such as prisons (see Bars and Stripes), corrupt institutions and oppressive political regimes. Bondage has also become more popular with the makers of hardcore caning videos such as Lupus Pictures and Mood Pictures, both of which specialize in period-piece films showing the abuses of fascist governments.
Most spanking videos are purely disciplinary in nature. That is, the story is about someone being punished and there is little or no sexual element. Very few pure spanking videos have any overt sexual contact at all (Shadow Lane and Lupus Pictures have recently introduced sex scenes in a few titles). However, there are enthusiasts who prefer loving, consensual erotic spankings where both parties get pleasure from the act. There are a few companies, most notably Shadow Lane, that cater to this fantasy as well.
Spanking videos vary widely in style, quality, and price. Each person has his/her own unique and personal idea of the ideal spanking video and the producing companies (see spanking pay sites and spanking product shops) have their devotees. Most maintain websites to advertise their products with descriptions, stills, trailers and video clips. In recent years, video piracy has become a major problem, especially with file-sharing sites.
 See also
- List of spanking video producers
- List of spanking actors
- Spanking videos on YouTube
- Free spanking sites
- The History of spanking in film
- Spanking in mainstream films
- Spanking and BDSM in TV commercials
- Scene Negotiation Checklist
- Spanking Tube
- Spanking video review site
- Spanking video clips (short spanking videos)
- BDSM Movie Review
- Consumer's Spanking Video News and Reviews
- Damsel in Distress – short spoof of silent film era cliches with stereotypical villain abusing a fair damsel. (7-minute video)
- La fessée à l'école at the xHamster website with Greek intertitles
- Irving Klaw: Bondage Classics (38 min.)
- Warden's End (1987), an early Janus video by Harrison Marks.
- Spanking Review In-depth reviews of spanking related sites
- Spanking Library hosting site for free video clips
- Spanking video trailers from DSH Productions
- Mood Pictures is a leading East European producer of spanking videos, based in Hungary.
- Spanking-Models.com A Denver, Colorado film studio owned by RealSpankings.com that hires models for spanking videos.
- Bun Beating Fun (aka Red Hot Video) is a leading USA-based producer of M/F otk spanking films, based in Philadelphia.
- Sound Punishment A leading UK-based producer of CP films
- Lupus Pictures (formerly Rigid East) is a leading Eastern European producer of CP films, based in Prague.
- Spanking Flash Online spanking flash movies
- Spanking Tube - Free online videos
- Spanking Videos free clip site similar to Spanking Tube